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Elementary Language Arts

Lesson Planning



Click here for some helpful information about lesson planning and lesson plan ideas.

Some resources to use when you are writing lessons:

Bloom's Taxonomy

Bloom's Taxonomy with Question Stems

Webb's Depth of Knowledge

Cognitive Complexity

animated gif Mini-Lesson Plan Template

Critical Thinking

Students need opportunities to engage in critical thinking to become successful critical and creative thinkers.  The following is a list of some essential critical thinking skills:

  • anticipating (predicting, hypothesizing)
  • classifying, categorizing
  • comparing/contrasting ideas, facts, concepts
  • discovering relationships
  • analyzing processes
  • making judgments
  • using evidence to support an argument
  • forming concepts
  • drawing conclusions
  • making inferences
  • applying knowledge to novel situations
  • reasoning inductively and deductively
  • ordering information (by attributes, priorities, etc.)
  • solving problems
  • interpreting meanings
  • visualizing a process, event, setting, character
  • making decisions

Effective Strategy Instruction:  What Teachers Do

  • show students how the strategy works - again and again and again
  • show students their thinking when engaged with text
  • show students how the strategy helps them understand what they are reading
  • show students how to use the strategy in their everyday lives
  • show students how to code the text to highlight a particular strategy
  • let students practice the strategy in many texts over a lot of time
  • give students time for reading to themselves
  • give students time for having conversations about their texts
  • provide guided reading practice
  • provide read-alouds, shared reading and independent reading opportunities
  • show students how to use the strategies with informational text and content area texts
  • give students choice in what they read
  • provide engaging activities for students to read for a particular purpose, to solve a particular problem, or to learn personally important information

Use some of the following strategies in your classroom:


A question is posed.  Students think about an answer and make notes.  Then students pair up to discuss their individual answers.  Then the class shares as a whole group.  With this strategy, each student gets to share at least once even if it is not at the whole group level.

Cooperative/Collaborative Learning

Students are put into groups of low, average, or high achievement levels to work on a common assignment.  The teacher should give clear instructions as well as clear guidelines about group responsibilities.

Cooperative Learning Groups

  • facilitate academic gains
  • create improved peer relationships
  • increase pro-social attitudes and behaviors
  • demonstrate a positive effect on classroom climate
  • raise self-esteem among students
  • promotes acceptance of mainstreamed students
  • improves attendance
  • shows marked increase in class participation
  • students involved in cooperative learning like school and learning

Remember, we learn:

10% of what we read.

20% of what we hear.

30% of what we see.

50% of what we see and hear.

75% of what we discuss with others.

80% of what we experience personally.

95% of what we teach to others.

Research You Can Use to Improve Results


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Web Site Help:

Write a Lesson Plan Guide

How to Write a Lesson Plan

How to Write Objectives

Web Site Help:

Madeline Hunter Lesson Plans Index

Madeline Hunter's Lesson Plan

Madeline Hunter Lesson Presentation

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Web Site Help:

The Lesson Plan:  Another Look

Tips on Instructional Objectives

How and Why of Performance Objectives

Mager's Tips on Instructional Objectives


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